Government: Chapter 8 Terms                                                                                                                                                                         Daniel Vroman


1.                    articles of impeachment – The specific charges brought against a president or a federal judge by the House of Representatives

2.                    Cabinet – The formal body of presidential advisers who head the fifteen executive departments.  Presidents often add others to this body of formal advisers

3.                    congressionalist – One who believes that Article II’s Provision that the president should ensure “faithful execution of the laws” should be read as an injunction against substituting presidential authority for legislative intent

4.                    executive agreement – Formal government agreement entered into by the executive branch that does not require the advice and consent of the Senate

5.                    Executive Office of the President – Establishment created in 1939 to help the president oversee the bureaucracy

6.                    executive order – A rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of a law.  All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register.

7.                    executive privilege – An assertion of presidential power that reasons that the president can withhold information requested by the courts in matters relating to his office

8.                    impeachment – The power delegated to the House of Representatives in the Constitution to charge the president, vice-president, or other “civil officers,” including federal judges, with “Treason Bribery, or other High Crimes and Misdemeanors.”  This is the first step in the constitutional process of removing such government officials from office

9.                    inherent powers – Powers of the president that can be derived or inferred from specific powers in the Constitution

10.                 line-item veto - The authority of a chief executive to delete part of a bill passed by the legislature that involves taxing and/or spending.  The legislature may override a veto, usually with a two thirds majority of each chamber.

11.                 Louisiana Purchase – The 1803 land purchase authorized by President Thomas Jefferson, which expanded the size of the United States  dramatically

12.                 New Deal – The name given to the program of “relief, recovery, reform” begun by President FDR in 1933 designed to bring the United States out of the Great Depression

13.                 pardon – An executive grant providing restoration of all rights and privileges of citizenship to a specific individual charged or convicted of a crime

14.                 patronage – Jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.

15.                 presidentialist – One who believes that Article II’s grant of executive power is a broad grant of authority allowing a president wide discretionary powers

16.                 stewardship theory – The theory that holds that Article II confers on the president the power and the duty to take whatever actions are deemed necessary in the national interest, unless prohibited by the Constitution or by law

17.                 Taftian theory – The theory that holds that the president is limited by the specific grants of executive power found in the Constitution

18.                 Twenty-Fifth Amendment – Adopted in 1967 to establish procedures for filling vacancies in the office of president and vice president as well as providing for procedures to deal with the disability of a president

19.                 Twenty-Second Amendment – Adopted in 1951, prevents a president from serving more than two terms or more than ten years in office

20.                 U.S. v. Nixon – In a case involving President Nixon’s refusal to turn over the tape recordings of his conversations, the court ruled that executive privilege does not grant the president an absolute right to secure all presidential documents.

21.                 veto powers – The formal, constitutional authority of the president to reject bills passed by both houses of Congress, thus preventing their law without further congressional action.

22.                 War Powers Act - Passed by Congress in 1973; the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty-day period in peacetime (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless Congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period